How Delhi Can Pay Its Way Out Of The Water Scarcity

Behavioural approaches can be used to nudge consumers to pay their dues and to conserve scarce water resources.
The DJB is owed an amount of Rs 2,854.80 crore from 1,187,891 consumers in Delhi.
Such capacities would be difficult to achieve, especially when India is predicted to be a water scarce country by 2025.
Print Price Slab Information On Water Bills To Conserve It In order to encourage water conservation, water utilities often charge higher prices for higher consumption.
It is anybody’s guess that information about price brackets will help people understand the relation between prices and consumption.
Another study in the United States on the effectiveness of pricing information on water bills reported a 30 per cent increase in price elasticity when the information was made available to the consumers.
The consumer doesn’t get information on a monthly basis, which makes it difficult for the consumer to understand their water consumption patterns.
An average person plans his/her expenses on a monthly basis; a three-month billing cycle will make it difficult for the individual to factor in water bill in their mental account.
Leverage Pro-Social Behaviour And Social Comparison For Water Conservation And Bill Payment When individuals get information about neighbourhood water consumption, it allows them to compare their own water consumption with that of those around them.
As the debate has shifted from full recovery to sustainable tariff recovery, behavioural approaches can be used to nudge consumers to pay their dues and to conserve scarce water resources.

The true costs of participatory sanitation

The study calculated programme costs, and local investments for four community-led total sanitation (CLTS) interventions in Ghana and Ethiopia.
Jonny Crocker, Darren Saywell, Katherine F. Shields, Pete Kolsky, Jamie Bartram, The true costs of participatory sanitation : evidence from community-led total sanitation studies in Ghana and Ethiopia.
Science of The Total Environment, vol.
601–602, 1 Dec 2017, pp: 1075-1083.
The few studies that report costs use top-down costing methods that are inaccurate and inappropriate.
We used implementation tracking and bottom-up, activity-based costing to assess the process, program costs, and local investments for four CLTS interventions in Ghana and Ethiopia.
Financial costs and value-of-time spent on CLTS by different actors were assessed.
The program cost of CLTS was $30.34–$81.56 per household targeted in Ghana, and $14.15–$19.21 in Ethiopia.
Most program costs were from training for three of four interventions.
This is the first study to present comprehensive, disaggregated costs of a sanitation and hygiene behaviour-change intervention.

Recent sanitation/WASH research

Recent sanitation/WASH research.
Behavioral antecedents for handwashing in a low-income urban setting in Bangladesh: an exploratory study.
Provision versus promotion to develop a handwashing station: the effect on desired handwashing behavior.
We conducted a three-month pilot intervention to evaluate two options for setting up handwashing stations: i) provide a handwashing station, or ii) help the family to make their own from available materials.
Impact of Community Health Clubs on Diarrhea and Anthropometry in Western Rwanda: Cluster-Randomized Controlled Trial.
FASEB Jnl, May 2017.
Our results raise questions about the value of implementing this intervention at scale.
Diet Quality, Water and Toilets Remain a Lingering Challenge for Undernutrition in India.
(Abstract/order) – Teacher training and installation of water stations resulted in observed improvements in pupils’ hygiene, particularly when water stations were located Consistency of Use and Effectiveness of Household Water Treatment Among Indian Households Claiming to Treat Their Water.
Adding a Water, Sanitation and Hygiene Intervention and a Lipid-Based Nutrient Supplement to an Integrated Agriculture and Nutrition Program Improved the Nutritional Status of Young Burkinabé Children.

CASE STUDY: Designing a reverse osmosis system for real conditions

Experts from the company presented the latest results – allowing an even better description of the separation behavior of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes under realistic application conditions – at the 3rd International Conference on Desalination using Membrane Technology, on the Spanish island of Gran Canaria from April 2-5, 2017.
Understanding complex correlations The behavior of RO membranes is determined under realistic service conditions by a large number of parameters.
In practice, not only the common salt normally used in tests is dissolved in the feed, but other salts too.
The pH and the temperature of the salt solution have, for each salt or ion, an individual influence on the success of separation.
They are also noted for their high stability even in extreme pH and temperature ranges.
The separation behavior was examined both on isolated membranes and on complete reverse osmosis elements.
Response surfaces for many application scenarios The response surfaces derived from the test series describe the behavior of the membrane with regard to individual salts or ions over the entire pH and temperature range.
The results were completely different, for example, with boron, where, in addition to the pH dependence, there was also a marked dependence of rejection on temperature.
The results allow the parameters for RO elements to be specifically selected so that optimal separation results can be obtained for the respective application.
Detailed information on the products of the LANXESS LPT business unit can also be found there.