How to reduce cholera-related deaths

*Surveillance and reporting of all cases of cholera.
Shanchol provides longer-term protection against both Vibrio cholerae O1 and O139 in children aged less than five years.
A relatively new vaccine — internationally licensed by the WHO in 2011 — is in short supply, with roughly two million doses kept in a WHO stockpile.
“The risk is probably relatively high,” Legros said.The WHO estimates there are 2.9 million cases and 95,000 deaths globally each year, far more than officially reported.
A new review of the research literature led by researchers at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, US, shows that cholera vaccines provide substantial protection for adults but provide significantly less protection for children under age five, a population particularly at risk for dying from this diarrheal disease.
The review, which considered seven clinical trials and six observational studies, found that the standard two-dose vaccine regimen reduced the risk of getting cholera on average by 58 percent for adults but only by 30 percent for children under age five.The findings appear online in the journal The Lancet Infectious Diseases.
There is growing evidence that climate change is altering the distribution of some diseases, in some cases causing epidemics or making diseases spread within their natural range, for example, Zika virus in South America, or bluetongue and Schmallenberg disease in livestock in Europe.Diseases spread by insects and ticks (vector-borne diseases) were found to be the most climate sensitive, followed by those transmitted in soil, water and food.

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